E-200

Sorbic acid
Sorbic acid naturally occurs in the fruit of the European Mountain-ash (Sorbus aucuparia ), after which the acid is named. It is commercially produced by several different chemical pathways. Function & characteristics: Sorbic acid is a preservative, mainly against fungi and yeasts. It is not effective against bacteria. Optimal activity is at pH values below 6.5 (acid and slightly acid foods). Sorbates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.

E 262

Sodium acetate
Sodium salt of acetic acid, an natural acid, present in most fruits. Produced by bacterial fermentation and thus present in all fermented products. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation of sugar, molasses or alcohol or by chemical synthesis from acetealdehyde. Function & characteristics: Acetates are used as preservatives and buffers. Acetic acid and acetates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. Although the acid may be produced from alcohol, it does not contain any alcohol.

E 270

Lactic acid
Natural acid produced by bacteria in fermented foods. All fermented foods are very rich in lactic acid. Commercially produced by bacterial fermentation on starch and molasses. Also produced in large amounts in the large intestine by the resident bacteria. Function & characteristics: Lactic acid and lactates are used as preservatives, mainly against yeasts and fungi. It is also used to increase stability of potato products, it increases and stabilises anti-oxidants and pectins. Lactic acid and lactates can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. Although the name refers to milk, it is mot made from milk and thus suitable for people with milk allergy or lactose intolerance.

E 330

Citric acid
Citric acid is a compound found in every living organism, as it is part of the key metabolic pathways in all body cells. Large concentrations are found in citrus fruits, kiwi, strawberries and many other fruits. It is commercially prepared by fermentation of molasses with the mould Aspergillus niger. Citric acid has many functions – it enhances the activity of many antioxidants, but is no antioxidant by itself. It is mainly used as an acidity regulator as well as aroma compound. Citric acid and citrates can normally be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians. Citric acid does not cause allergic reactions in people who are allergic to oranges and citrus fruits, as it is commercially made from sugar, not fruits.

E 412

Guar Gum

A natural polysaccharide, produced from the guar shrub (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus) found in Pakistan and India. Function & characteristics:
Thickening agent, stabiliser and emulsifier. Guar gum can be used by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.

E 415

Xanthan gum
A natural polysaccharide, produced by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris from sugar and molasses. Function & characteristics: Thickening agent, stabiliser and emulsifier. Xanthan gum can be used by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.

E 450

Potassium and sodium di-phosphates
Salts of sodium/potassium/calcium with phosphates. All are produced synthetically from the respective carbonates and phosphoric acid. Function & characteristics: Buffers and emulsifiers. E450 (iii) also binds metals and prevents discoloration due to metals. E450 (vi) is also used as bread enhancer and calcium supplement. E450 can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.

E 464

Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose
Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose is prepared from cellulose, the main polysaccharide and constituent of wood and all plant structures. Commercially prepared from wood and chemically modified. Function & characteristics: Many different uses, mainly as thickening agent, but also as filler, dietary fibre, anti clumping agent and emulsifier. Similar as cellulose, but better soluble in water. E464 can be consumed by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.

E 471

Mono and diglycerides
Synthetic fats, produced from glycerol and natural fatty acids, mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different products, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat. Function & characteristics: Emulsifiers and stabilisers. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded.

E 472b

Lactic acid esters of mono and diglycerides
Esters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat esterified with other natural acids.Function & characteristics: Emulsifiers and stabilisers. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E 472e

Diacetyltartaric acid esters of mono and diglycerides
Esters of synthetic fats, produced from glycerol, natural fatty acids and another organic acid (acetic, lactic, tartaric, citric). The fatty acids are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components, with a composition similar to partially digested natural fat esterified with other natural acids.Function & characteristics: Emulsifiers and stabilisers. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E 475

Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids
Combination of polyglycerol and natural fats. Normal fat consists of glycerol and fatty acids, for these products additional glycerol is coupled to the normal glycerol. The fats are mainly from plant origin, but also fats of animal origin may be used. The product generally is a mixture of different components. Function & characteristics: Emulsifiers and stabilisers. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E 481

Sodium stearoyl lactate
Combination of stearic acid and lactic acid, resulting in a mixture of several components. The origin of stearic acid can be or plant or animal fat, although in practice nearly always vegetable oil will be used. Function & characteristics: Emulsifier and stabiliser. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E 482

Calcium stearoyl lactate
Combination of calcium, stearic acid and lactic acid, resulting in a mixture of several components. The origin of stearic acid can be or plant or animal fat, although in practice nearly always vegetable oil will be used. Function & characteristics: Emulsifier and stabiliser. Although mainly vegetable oils are used, the use of animal fat (incl. pork) can not be excluded. Several groups, such as vegans, Muslims and Jews thus avoid these products. Chemically the fatty acids from vegetable or animal origin are identical.

E 500

Sodium carbonates
Produced from seawater or salt. Natural minerals. Function & characteristics: Acidity regulators, alkali, and rising agent. None, E500 can be used by all religious groups, vegans and vegetarians.